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MPSC State Service Preliminary Examination-2018 – Paper 2

MPSC  State Service Preliminary Examination-2018 – Paper 2

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 1 to 5:

Adverse Impacts of Green Revolution

There can be no doubt that the first Green Revolution lifted the country out of a situation immediately after independence when the prospects of famine and scarcity of food commodities loomed large. The rapidly expanding population could have made matters all the more worse. It was the Green Revolution that helped tackle the food security issue with increased agricultural productivity.

However, the Green Revolution did have some adverse impacts too which are being felt in the long run. Since the emphasis was mainly on cereals like rice and wheat, there was a loss of productivity as far as pulses, fruits and vegetables were concerned. The present rate of fruit and vegetable production will not be able to cope with the future demand as the population is increasing rapidly.

Besides, production of the same type of cereals such as rice and wheat year after year gradually decreased soil fertility making it difficult for pulses and other vegetables to grow. Monoculture (the cultivation of same crop variety for a prolonged period) also led to breakdown of the plant’s resistance to pests and diseases which is an unwelcome offshoot of the first Green Revolution.

Another criticism often directed at the first Green Revolution is the indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides that is today threatening the agri-future of the country. Excessive and inappropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides led to widespread environmental damage polluting waterways, poisoning agricultural workers and killing beneficial insects and other wildlife.

The first Green Revolution also did not take care of certain areas like rainfed, hilly, coastal, dry land and arid zones which could be developed properly for production of exportable items like fruits, honey, mushroom, milk, meat, etc. Critics of the Green Revolution have also argued that owners of large farms were the main adopters of new technologies because of their better access to irrigation water, fertilizers, seeds and credit. Small farmers were either unaffected or harmed because the Green Revolution resulted in lower product prices, higher input prices and efforts by landlords to increase rent or force tenants off the land. The Green Revolution also encouraged unnecessary mechanization, thereby pushing down rural wages and employment.

Faulty irrigation practices also led to salt build-up and eventual abandonment of some of the best farming lands. Groundwater levels have retreated in areas where more water is being pumped for irrigation than can be replenished by the rains.

  1. The first Green Revolution did not take care of which of the following areas?
  2. Rainfed areas
  3. Coastal areas
  4. Fertile soil areas
  5. Arid areas

Answer Options:

(1) Only a and c

(2) Only c and d

(3) Only a, b and d

(4) All of the above

  1. Which of the following criticisms of the first Green Revolution is/are correct?
  2. Polluting waterways
  3. Polluting air
  4. Poisoning agricultural workers
  5. Killing beneficial insects and wildlife

Answer Options:

(1) Only a and b

(2) Only c and d

(3) Only b

(4) Only a, c and d

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the Green Revolution?
  2. There was emphasis mainly on cereals like rice and wheat.
  3. There was a loss of productivity of pulses, fruits and vegetables.
  4. There was emphasis mainly on pulses, fruits and vegetables cultivation.
  5. There was a gradual decrease in soil fertility year after year.

Answer Options:

(1) Only a, b and d

(2) Only c

(3) Only a and c

(4) All of the above

  1. Which of the following impacts on environment during the Green Revolution is/are correct?
  2. Faulty irrigation practices
  3. Increase of salt in soil
  4. Abandonment of some of the best farming lands
  5. Groundwater levels have retreated

Answer Options:

(1) Only a

(3) Only a, b and d

(2) Only b and c

(4) All of the above

  1. Which of the following adverse impacts of the Green Revolution is/are correct?
  2. Production of, same type of cereals year after year decreased soil fertility.
  3. Loss of soil fertility made it difficult for pulses and vegetables to grow.
  4. Monoculture led to breakdown of plant’s resistance to pests and diseases.

Answer Options:

(1) Only a

(2) Only a and b

(3) Only a and c

(4) All of the above

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 6 to 10:

 

‘Communication Technology’ has been the single most important economic force shaping all societies over the past half-century with geography; national borders and time zones becoming irrelevant with ‘the new communication revolution’. In today’s changing world, global electronic commerce is growing so fast and creating new opportunities for trade that no country can afford to miss it. Such explosive innovations and developments in science and technology have deeply influenced the direction and trends in international trade.

The role of international trade in the process of economic development is widely recognized. International trade brings a variety of static and dynamic gains and thus increases the capacity for development. Larger the volume of trade, greater is the potential for development. Economic history finds success stories of various countries, which were relatively underdeveloped at one time but were converted to the category of developed countries through foreign trade.

Trade is as old as human society itself, as no man, and more so, no society, can ever be self-su5cient. In ancient times trade was in the form of barter, but afterwards, not only did trade change from barter to money, but from a stroke of a computer keyboard, people could enter into a transaction not only in goods and services but also in stocks and bonds, financial lending and national and international currency dealing from one corner to another corner of the world.

Export promotion being one of the main facets of fast and steady growth, considerable attention has been given to export incentives since the nineteen sixties. It has been realized that “export growth is not a luxury” for India. It is a prerequisite for adequate foreign exchange earnings, to maintain the tempo of economic development without sacrificing the country’s self-reliance. However, exports can play an effective role “as an engine of economic growth” in Indian conditions.

Export trade is a vital variable in the Indian economic situation. It plays a paramount role in Indian economic development. It is indeed exports that activate the use of unexploited natural and human resources, break the limitations of the domestic market, strengthen and organize the stagnant economy and minimize the dependence on foreign aid, which, since long is believed to accelerate the pace of economic transformation. Exports are a key factor in the development process of any economy. The logical grounds can be considered in terms of both, the direct and indirect gains of exports in a developing economy like India.

  1. Geographical, national borders and time zones are becoming irrelevant because of

(1) Communication technology

(2) The new communication revolution

(3) Information communication technology

(4) Digital tools

  1. The potential of development depends on the

(1) Direction of trade

(2) Import of trade

(3) Volume of trade

(4) None of the above

  1. Trade is as old as human society because

(1) No one is self-sufficient

(2) Greed of development

(3) Wants are unlimited

(4) Resources are limited

  1. Due to computer technology, people have also entered into the trade of

(1) Goods and services

(2) Human resources

(3) Natural resources

(4) National and international currencies

  1. Choose the appropriate title for the passage.

(1) Export Promotion

(2) Communication Technology,

(3) Communication Revolution

(4) Foreign Trade and Economic Development

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 11 to 15:

 

The wonders of light can be enjoyed in a variety of ways. Mirrors and lenses are part of them. Plane mirrors are well known to us. Concave and convex mirrors are used to converge and diverge the light as per need. The focal length of the spherical mirror is half of its radius of curvature. The ratio of the product and sum of object distance and image distance is the focal length of the mirror. Convex and concave lenses are also used for the same purpose as above. The ratio of the product and difference of object distance and image distance is the focal length of the lens.

According to new Cartesian sign convention, the measurements towards the left from the pole or centre and below the axis are taken as negative, while those towards the right and above the axis are taken as positive. The ability of lenses to converge or diverge is their power in the units of dioptre. One dioptre is the reciprocal of focal length in metres.

In general, mirrors and lenses are used to obtain a magnified image relative to the object. Magnification is the ratio of image size to object size or image distance to object distance. Mirrors and lenses are used in torches and headlights, flood lights, projector lamps, solar devices and furnaces, cameras, spectrometers, simple microscopes, compound microscopes, telescopes, spectacles, etc. The human eye is a natural optical instrument. Light enters the thin cornea, iris, pupil of variable diameter to control and regulate light with the tendency of adaptation. Behind the pupil there is a biconvex crystalline lens having the power of accommodation. Finally a real and inverted image is formed on the retina. The distance of distinct vision is 25 cm from the normal eye.

But various refractive defects like myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia arise due to non-relaxation or weak action of ciliary muscles, high or low converging power of lens, increase or decrease in distance between lens and retina, lengthening or shortening of the eyeball. These defects can be corrected by using suitable concave or convex lenses. Both the defects may appear simultaneously, in such cases, bifocal lens should be used.

  1. An object 3 cm in size is placed 20 cm in front of a concave mirror of radius of curvature 24 cm. At what distance from the mirror should a screen be placed in order to obtain a sharp image? Also, what is the size of the image?

       Distance of screen       Size of image

(1)       -30 cm                             + 45 cm

(2)       – 30 cm                            – 4.5 cm

(3)       + 4.5 cm                          – 30 cm

(4)        – 4.5 cm                         + 30 cm

  1. What focal power should the reading spectacles have for a person for whom the least distance of distinct vision is 50 cm?

(1) 0.02 Dioptre

(2) 0.2 Dioptre

(3) 2 Dioptre

(4) 20 Dioptre

  1. In the list of the following instruments mirrors and lenses are used. Classify them accordingly.

(i) Headlights

(ii) Telescopes

(iii) Compound microscopes

(iv) Projection lamps

(v) Floodlights

(vi) Simple microscopes

     Mirrors                   Lenses

(1) (i), (iv), (v)        (ii), (iii), (vi)

(2) (iii), (iv), (ii)       (i), (vi), (v)

(3) (i), (ii), (vi)         (iii), (iv), (v)

(4) (ii), (iii), (vi)       (i), (iv), (v)

  1. A person whose left eye is myopic and right eye is hypermetropic; his spectacles should have right and left lenses to be ______ and ___________ respectively.

(1) convex, bifocal

(2) concave, bifocal

(3) concave. convex

(4) convex, concave

  1. A card sheet divided into squares, each of size 1 mm x 1 mm is being viewed at a distance of 9 cm through a convex lens of focal length 9 cm held close to the eye. The squares on the card sheet will be observed to be of size

(1) 10 mm x 10 mm

(2) 10 mm2

(3) 10 cm2

(4) 1 mm2

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 16 to 20:   

Flowers serve as an excellent offering to God. They are an invaluable aid for personal make-up and a source of inspiration to poets.    

Flowers are the structure of sexual reproduction in plants. After seed germination, the plant grows continuously to its full maturity. At a certain point in life, the plant switches over to the reproductive phase and starts bearing flowers. The stalk of the flower is referred to as pedicel. In general, four types of organs are involved in constituting a flower. The outermost green whorl having sepals is calyx, and inner to the calyx is a whorl of brightly colored petals, i.e. corolla. Next to it, the whorl is of stamens which is collectively called androecia; representing the male sex organs. The centre of the flower is occupied by carpels, i.e. gynoecia which is represented by the female reproductive whorl. Depending on the presence of stamens and carpels, the flower may be a male, female or hermaphrodite flower. In flowers, pollen grains are produced by stamens in the anther lobe. Then mature pollen grains are transferred to the stigma leading to successful pollination. The stigma provides required natural conditions for in-vivo germination of pollen grains.       

Various agencies are involved in the transfer of pollen grains to the stigma; they may be biotic or abiotic. The biotic agencies are bees, insects, birds, bats, ants, animals, etc. and abiotic agencies are wind and water.        

The process of pollination is very basic and important for fruit and seed setting. Likewise, it is important for the conservation of biodiversity. The pollinators and plants are co-evolved during the course of evolution. Some species need only biotic agents for pollination without which plants will become extinct. In the absence of successful pollination, the plant reproduction process will stop completely. That is why it is necessary to conserve the plants and their pollinators too. If pollination stops due to any reason, the process of seed setting will cease.

  1. As per the involvement of various parts of a flower in the process of sexual reproduction, which one of the following cannot be neglected?

(1) Sepals

(2) Petals

(3) Pedicel

(4) Stamens

  1. After the transfer of pollen grains, which floral organ acts as a site for pollen tube germination?

(1) Style

(2) Stigma

(3) Ovary

(4) Anther

  1. When honey-bees visit from one flower to another, they carry out the process of

(1) Pollination

(3)  Reproduction

(2) Fertilization

(4) All of the above

  1. The process of sexual reproduction is said to be successful only when

(1) Pollen grains land perfectly on the stigma

(2) The pollen tube reaches the ovary

(3) There is formation of seeds in fruit

(4) A biotic agency is involved in pollination

  1. During the course of evolution, plants and their pollinators evolved

(1) Separately

(2) Simultaneously

(3) Plants first and then pollinators

(4) Pollinators first and then plants

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 21 to 26:

Acid Rain

Normally rainwater has a pH of 5.6 due to the presence of HQ ions formed by the reaction of rainwater with CO2 present in the atmosphere.

H20 (1) + C02 (g) = HzC03 (aq)

H2C03 (aq) = He (aq) + HC03@ (aq)

When the pH of the rain drops below 5.6 it is called acid rain. Acid rain is a by-product of a variety of human activities that emit the oxides of S and N in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil in power stations and furnaces or petrol and diesel in motor engines produce SO2 and NO2 after oxidation and their reaction with H2O are major contributors to acid rain. Acid rain is harmful for agriculture, trees and plants as it dissolves and washes away nutrients needed for their growth. It causes respiratory ailments in human beings and animals. It affects the aquatic ecosystem. It corrodes water pipes resulting in the leaching of heavy metals such as Fe, Pb and Cu into the drinking water. Acid water damages buildings and other structures made up of stone or metal. The Taj Mahal in India has been affected by acid rain.

  1. Rain is called acid rain, when its pH value is

(1) 7.0

(2) 8.3

(3) 7.9

(4) Less than 5.6

  1. When H20 (1) reacts with C02 (g) it gives

(1) HC03 (aq)

(2) H2C03 (aq)

(3) H2C02 (aq)

(4) H3C03 (aq)

  1. Burning of fossil fuels and petroleum gives

(1) SO and NO

(2) SO2 and N02

(3) (3) S and N2

(4) (4) NH3 and SO2

  1. Acid rain is harmful to plants because

(1) It gives nutrients

(2) Nutrients are added as supplement

(3) It washes away the nutrients

(4) Nutrients will remain as they are

  1. The Taj Mahal in India has been affected by

(1) Heavy rain

(2) Acid rain

(3) Constant rain

(4) Smaller rain

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 26 to 30:

Arun Tiwari, requested me to share my reminiscences with him, so that he could record them. He was someone who had been working in my laboratory since 1982, but I had never really known him well until the February of 1987 when I visited him at the Intensive Coronary Care Unit of the Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad. He was a mere 32-year-old, but was fighting valiantly for his life. I asked him if there was anything he wanted me to do for him. “Give me your blessings, Sir,” he said, “so that I may have a longer life and can complete at least one of your projects.”

The young man’s dedication moved me and I prayed for his recovery all night. The Lord answered my prayers and Tiwari was able to get back to work in a month. He did an excellent job in helping to realize the Akash missile airframe from scratch within the short space of three years. He then took up the task of chronicling my story. Over the last year, he patiently transcribed the bits and pieces of my story and converted them into a fluent narrative. He also went through my personal library meticulously and selected from among the pieces of poetry those I had marked while reading, and included them in the text.

This story is an account, I hope, not just of my personal triumphs and tribulations but of the successes and setbacks of the science establishment in modem India, struggling to establish itself in the technological forefront. It is the story of national aspiration and of cooperative Endeavour. And, as I see it, the saga of India’s search for scientific self-sufficiency and technological competence is a parable for our times.

Each individual creature on this beautiful planet is created by God to fulfil a particular role. Whatever I have achieved in life is through His help, and an expression of His will. He showered His grace on me through some outstanding teachers and colleagues, and when I pay my tributes to these fine persons, I am merely praising His glory. All these rockets and missiles are His work through a small person called APJ Abdul Kalam.

  1. The author of the above passage is

(1) Ashok Tiwari

(2) Can’t be recognised

(3) APJ Abdul Kalam

(4) A doctor in Hyderabad

  1. The passage suggests that Ashok Tiwari helped to write a/an

(1) Article on Kalam

(2) Biography of Kalam

(3) Novel

(4) Autobiography of Kalam

  1. Kalam was a/an (Choose a more complete description from the options)

(1) Agnostic

(2) Theist

(3) Atheist

(4) Theist, a scientist and a voracious reader

  1. The Akash missile airframe was created in a period of

(1) 32 years

(2) 3 years

(3) 2 years

(4) 5 years

  1. Arun Tiwari suffered from a/an

(1) Heart related disease

(2) Incurable disease –

(3) Type of cancer

(4) Accident

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 31 to 35:

To help the farmers, the Agricultural Adjustment Act provided for curtailment of farm output to get rid of the surplus that was depressing prices. Farmers were paid not to raise grain and livestock, fields were left idle and excess produce was destroyed. Considerable criticism was levied against this policy. Millions of people throughout the United States and the world needed food that they could not pay for, and as yet no way of giving it to them was politically feasible.

The government embarked on an ambitious project in the Tennessee Valley, an area embracing 6,40,000 square miles in the heart of the South. During World War I it had built a dam and ammunition factories at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, which it had tried unsuccessfully to sell when peace came. Now, in 1933, it created the Tennessee Valley Authority, an independent government agency, to put these facilities to work producing fertilizer and electric power. Moreover, the TVA went on to build many additional dams and power plants to improve the region. Cheap electricity was made available; floods that had ravaged the Valley and hindered its development were halted; farm experts were sent to show the people how to conserve their land and achieve greater production. Within a few years, what had once been a backward area was a land of humming industries and prosperous farms.

Looking to the future, the New Deal passed the Social Security Act to protect the people against many of the common forms of distress. The program, which has continued to the present time, includes unemployment insurance for workers, old age pensions, aid to dependent children and benefits to the needy. Federal funds, distributed and administered by the States contribute to much of this security system, which is supported in part by workers, employers and State and local governments.

  1. What was the aim of the Social Security Act?

(1) To improve relations between workers and employers

(2) To provide enough water

(3) To bring about prosperity

(4) To protect people against common forms of distress

  1. What was assumed to be responsible for the decline of prices?

(1) Idle fields

(2) Surplus farm output

(3) People could not pay for food

(4) The New Deal

  1. Why was the Agricultural Adjustment Act criticized?

(1) The Act curtailed farm output but people needed food

(2) The Act could not stop the Great Depression

(3) The Act gave away food but people did not pay for it

(4) None of the above

  1. Which of the following is an incorrect statement?

(1) It was not politically viable to give food to the needy people.

(2) TVA built the ammunition factory in Alabama during World War I.

(3) Public education about land conservation resulted in prosperity.

(4) Social Security Act continues to protect people.

  1. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

(1) Was an independent government agency

(2) Built dams all over the United States after 1933

(3) Provided employment insurance

(4) Is supported by workers and employers

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 36 to 40:

World Distribution of Human Race

All members of a racial group, though each one of us has one head, two arms, two legs, two eyes, two ears and so on, each one presents a different appearance.

A scientific classification of races should be based on measurable physical features that are inherited from ancestors. The features considered important for classification of races include – colour of skin, stature, shape of the head, face, nose, eyes, type of hair, etc.

Skin Colour – Skin colour makes the most apparent difference between people belonging to different races. On the basis of skin colour, the people of the world are classified as White, Black and Yellow. White-skinned people are found in North America, black in Africa and yellow in China, Japan and Mongolia.

Stature – Stature being an easily measurable character can be used as one of the bases for classification of human population. Human population on the basis of stature is divided into the group of short, medium and tall people. Generally people in Europe and North America are tallest and Mongoloid people are the shortest.

Shape of the Head – Like stature, the shape of the head is a measurable parameter. Long headed people are found in Europe and North America, while medium to small headed people are found in Africa and Asia.

Shape of the Nose – Width and height of nose is also an important criterion for identification of various races. People with long and narrow noses are found in European countries while the Africans are classified as people with broad noses. The fiji of the Niger Delta in West Africa are the people with the broadest noses among the Negroes while the Swedes have the narrowest nostrils

Shape of the Face –The facial appearance of a person is also considered an indicator of his race. The face may be long or broad. It is generally observed that the faces of the Mongoloid, Chinese and Polish people are broader while Scandinavians or the Nordic have relatively narrower faces.

Eyes – Colour and form of eyes is an indicator of certain racial groups. People are classified on the basis of the colour of the eyes as dark-eyed, gray-eyed, or blue-eyed people. Dark-eyed people are found in Mica, Gray-eyed in Mongolia, China and Japan and Blue-eyed in North America and Europe.

Hair Form and Colour – Form and colour of hair vary from race to race. On the basis of the form the hair can be classified as straight long hair or short wooly hair and wavy hair. The Caucasoid people have wavy hair, the Negroid have wooly hair and Mongoloid have straight hair.

  1. Which of the following is the skin colour of the Mongolian people?

(1) Yellowish

(2) White

(3) Black

(4) Wheatish

  1. To identify the different races, which features among the following are considered?
  2. Width and height of nose
  3. Shape of face
  4. Colour of hair
  5. Colour of skin

Answer Options:

(1) Only a and d

(2) Only a and b

(3) Only a, b and c

(4) All of the above

  1. Which features of the human race are easily measurable?
  2. Height
  3. Shape of the head
  4. Skin colour
  5. Hair colour

Answer Options:

(1) Only b and c

(2) Only a and b

(3) Only a, b and d

(4) Only b, c and d

  1. Which option indicates the features of the North American people?

(1) White-skinned, tallest, long headed and blue-eyed

(2) White-skinned, blue-eyed and straight-haired

(3) Long headed, tallest and wooly hair

(4) Broadest nose, shortest and dark-eyed

  1. Which people have broader faces?

(1) Mongoloid and Caucasoid

(2) Mongoloid and Japanese

(3) Chinese and Mongoloid

(4) Caucasoid and Japanese

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 46 to 50:

In the Soumya case the Supreme Court acquitted the accused for murder but convicted him to life imprisonment for rape, which Justice Katju criticised in his writing. The subsequent incidents were wholly unwarranted. The court invited the former judge to defend his statements in person, then chose to take umbrage at his writing, issued a contempt notice against him, and then asked security staff to escort him outside the premises. Why did the court have to go through this theatrical public confrontation, when it could have issued a contempt notice on the basis of the blog post alone?

The second aspect is even more troubling: the relevance of contempt law in a kee society where criticism of the judiciary is inevitable. Judges have vast powers and people will not remain silent about the exercise of such powers. Just as decisions of other branches of government attract criticism, judicial decisions would also invite the same.

The Supreme Court has held that for the judiciary to function effectively, the dignity and authority of the courts must be respected and protected at all costs. But the need to respect the “authority and dignity of the court is borrowed from a bygone era; it has no basis in a democratic system. The law of contempt should be employed only to enable the court to function, not to prevent criticism. In many countries, contempt jurisdiction is regarded as archaic and exercised sparingly. In the US, courts no longer use contempt to silence comments on judges or legal matters. The First Amendment to the US Constitution forbids imposition of’ contempt sanctions on a newspaper.

The English position is best demonstrated by the Spycatcher’s case in the late 1980s. After the House of Lords delivered the Spycatcher judgement, the Daily Mirror published an upside-down photograph of the Law Lords captioned, “You Old Fools”. But no contempt action was initiated against the newspaper.

  1. The writer feels that criticism of judiciary is inevitable because
  2. People live in a free society
  3. People will not remain silent
  4. Other branches of government also attract criticism
  5. Authority of courts is limited
  6. Umbrage means
  7. Shady
  8. Appreciate
  9. Resent
  10. Offended

(1) Only a, b and c

(2) Only a, c and d

(3) Only a

(4) All of the above

  1. ‘Upside-down’ means

(1) Crazy

(3) Settled

(2) Straight

(4) Topsy-turvy

  1. Which analogy was used for the judges in the Spycatcher’s case?

(1) House of Lords

(2) Contempt Jurisdiction

(3) Old Fools

(4) Law Lordship

  1. The Supreme Court invited Justice Katju to defend his statements; but then, what did the court do?
  2. Took offense and asked him to go away
  3. Insulted him by asking the security to remove him
  4. Exhibited public confrontation d. Jailed him

(1) Only a and b

(2) Only b and d

(3) Only a, b and c

(4) All of the above

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