“Female Reproductive System” MHT-CET Class 12 Biology Crash Course| Chapter “Reproduction in Lower & Higher Animals”
In this session Jyoti A. Shete discussed the theory and MCQ’s of “Female Reproductive System”. The session will be useful for all the aspirants of MHT-CET 2022. The session will be in Marathi and English.
Human female reproductive system consists of
1.) A pair of ovaries
2.) A pair of oviducts
5.) External genitalia (vulva)
6.) A pair of vestibular glands
7.) A pair of mammary glands
- It is the primary female sex organ.
- One pair,small oval almond shaped(3cm*1.5cm*1cm)
- Ovaries are abdominal in position.
- Ovary present on either side of the uterus.
- Each ovary is held in position by ligaments by attaching it to the uterus and abdominal wall
- The largest ligament is broad ligament which is formed by fold of peritoneum
- It holds ovary oviduct and uterus to the dorsal body wall .
- The ovarian ligament attach ovary to the uterus. Ovary produces female sex hormones oestrogen progesterone , relax in, activin and inhibin.
Structure and development of ovary
- Each ovary is solid and internally lined by cuboidal germinal epithelium.
- Itis differentiated into Central part called as Medulla and outer part called as cortex.
- Inner tissue called as stroma on matrix is differentiated into to outer cortex which contains reticular connective tissue and inner medulla which contains areolar connective tissue.
- Each ovary has a number of small oval or rounded developing ovarian follicle at different stages of oogenesis in medulla region.
- Medulla contains blood vessels lymph vessels and nerve fibres.
- Every month a primary follicle is transformed into secondary follicle then secondary to tertiary follicle tertiary to mature or graafin follicle under the influence of hormone FSH .
- Graafian follicle is having secondary oocyte.
- Antrum is the cavity in the graphene follicle in which the secondary oocyte is suspended by a stock of follicular cells called as cumulus oophorus or germ hill from membrana granulosa whose outermost layer is called astheca externa and inner is called as theca interna.
- Follicular cells are endocrine in function.
- The secret female sex hormone oestrogen cortex of ovary show yellow gland or Corpus luteum which on degeneration form Corpus albicans and
- Function of ovary is to produce egg and oestrogen.
2.) Oviduct/Fallopian tube
- There are paired muscular duct lying horizontally over peritoneal cavity which extends from ovaries to uterus.
- Each tube is 10 to 12 cm in length internally lined by ciliated epithelium
- It can be divided into three major regions
-Funnel shaped part which opens into abdominal cavity and opening is called as ostium
which having many finger like processes called as fimbriae.
-Which causes suction because of that ovulated egg transfer from abdominal cavity to fallopian tube.
-Middle long straight part of oviduct which is the site for fertilization.
-Distal narrow part of duct open into uterus.
3.) Uterus (Womb)
- It is a small (8 cm X 5 cm X 2 cm), hollow, muscular, highly vascular, pear shaped organ.
- It is located between bladder and rectum.
- a) Fundus – upper dome shaped part (above the opening of fallopian tube)
- b) Body – It is the main part. Its wall has 3 layers.
Perimetrium. – Outer
Myometrium (highly muscular, made up of smooth muscles)- Middle
Endometrium -Inner highly vascular and glandular
- c) Cervix – it is the lower part of the uterus. It opens in to the body of the uterus byinternal os and in to the vagina by external os.
- Uterus is the site of implantation and foetal development.
- It also takes part in placenta formation.
- It is long (7.5 cm), fibro-muscular tube,
- It is lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
- It is highly vascular tube lined by mucus membrane which is raised in to transverse folds.
- Vagina opens in vestibule by vaginal orifice called Vulva.
- Vaginal orifice is closed by a membranous diaphragm called Hymen.
- Vagina acts as copulation canal as it receives the sperms and as birth canal duringparturition
5.) External genitalia
- It has a depression called as vestibule
- Vestibule has two opening apa ureteral orifice and lower vaginal orifice
- Vestibule is bound by two pairs of moist skin folds with sebaceous glands.
- Labia majora outer and larger fleshy part with sebaceous gland
- Labia minora in a smaller folds.
- Labia majora which is normal August to scrotum.
- Clitoris a small conical and sensitive projection lying at anterior end of labia minora it has erectile tissue and which is homologous to penis.
- Mons pubis: It is a fleshy elevation above the labia majora. The Mons pubis and outer part of labia majora show pubic hair.
6.) Accessory glands
1.) Vestibular glands / Bartholin’s glands
- It is a pair of glands homologous to the Bulbourethral or Cowper’s glands of the male.
- They open into the vestibule and release a lubricating fluid.
2.) Mammary glands
- One pair of rounded structure which are convex anteriorly and each has an erectile nipple.
- Each nipple has 15-20 openings of lactiferous ducts which
- Lactiferous ducts dilate and form lactiferous sinuses just beneath the nipple and store milk
- Base of the nipple is deep pink to light brown in colour and is called aerola.
- Mammary glands are compound, saccular and modified sweat glands.
- A breast is with about 20 lobes of milk glands.
- Mammary glands are functional in females and vestigial in males.
- Growth of mammary glands start at puberty due to estrogen
- Size also increases during pregnancy under the influence of progesterone and after child birth under the stimulation of prolactin.
- Milk release in human females is under the influence of hormones (prolactin andoxytocin), nervous and psychic state of mother.
Female Reproductive System MCQs | Important Question for Exam
(1) ……..is commonly called the womb.
(B) Fallopian tube
Ans: (C) Uterus
(2) Normally, the implantation of the embryo occurs in
(A) isthmus of the oviduct
(B) fundus of the uterus
(C) ampulla of the oviduct
Ans: (C) ampulla of the oviduct
(3) Perimetrium is…..
(A) the outermost layer of uterine wall.
(B) innermost layer of uterine wall.
(C) inner layer of uterus.
(D) middle part of the oviduct.
Ans: (A) the outermost layer of uterine wall.
(4) In uterus, the middle thick muscular layer ofsmooth muscles is called……
Ans: (B) myometrium
(5) After ovulation the secondary oocyte enters into fallopian tube through……
Ans: (B) Ostium
(6) ……..is covered by fold of mucous membrane called hymen.
(B) Vaginal orifice
Ans: (B) Vaginal orifice
(7) Vigorous contraction of muscles ofcause labour during parturition……
Ans: (C) myometrium
(8) ……..is the upper dome shaped part of theuterus.
Ans: (B) Fundus
(9) ……….layer of uterine wall undergoes changes during menstrual cycle.
(D) both (A) and (B)
Ans: (B) endometrium
(10) Vagina lies between……
(A) cervix and vestibule
(B) isthmus and infundibulum
(C) fundus and cervix
(D) isthmus and vestibule
Ans: (A) cervix and vestibule
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