MPSC Rajyaseva Preliminary Examination Question Paper & Answer Key 2014 Paper-2

MPSC Rajyaseva Preliminary Examination Question Paper 2014 Paper-2

Paper: Paper 2 (MPSC CSAT paper 2014)

Question number 1 to 5 :

“Half a century later, Indians learnt to die for their cause. In this pursuit we were greatly

helped by the examples of martyrs from Ireland and Russia. Thus, it will be wrong to search for

the causes thereof only within India, right ?”

 

“Of Course, Saifubhai. Whole world is interconnected.”

“Shankar, the success of any revolutionary movement is dependent on two things. First,

how much inspiration it draws from international conditions and examples. Second, how much

of the most revolution prone class participates in it. I have already given some examples of the

first. The second source is that of the workers, the farmers, the people. Only those can fight the

revolutionary battle who have nothing to lose. How can someone who is afraid of being deprived

of Sakina’s luscious lips, this bungalow and the hereditary rights over villages be a revolutionary

fighter ? Therefore I say, only the ordinary people can be the vehicle of the revolution.”

“I too agree”.

“Fine, you are aware of the public enthusiasm. Now, see how the international conditions

can be inspiring. The last world war evoked a lot of fire. It was fought at the instance of imperialism

the last ditch effort to have a control over the safe markets for capital and finished goods. Germany

wanted new colonies but the world was already divided. So, the war was necessary for grabbing

the colonies. As a result, Germany got entangled in a war with England and France, who owned

the colonies. It was good that Germany lost the war, however a new enemy to the kicking imperialism

was born – Communism awakening imperialism out of its slumber. Goods should be produced for

the happiness and prosperity, of all the mankind, not for profit. Machines are improved, industries

proliferate, production increases and a large market is required for its sale. However, that requires

rolling cash in the hands of the consumer. Consumers should be paid their wages adequately. If

there is a decrease in casMow, sale of goods will decrease. Goods will pile up in godowns. There

will be a financial depression. Production will have to be reduced. Factories will close down.

People will lose jobs. What can they buy without money ? How will factories be run ? Communism

says, give up the lust for profit. Think of your country and the world as a family and produce only

what you need. Let everybody work according to his capacity. Give him the necessities of life as

per his needs. All of this can happen if land or factories will not be individually owned. All the

means of production should belong to one big family.”

(1) Consider the following statements with reference to the paragraph.

(a) Means of production should be commonly owned.

(b) Profit should not be a motive.

(c) Individuals should get goods only as much as they need.

(1) All three are correct and (a) is necessary for (c)

(2) All three are correct and (b) is necessary for (c)

(3) All three are correct and (a) and (b) are necessary for (c)

(4) (a) and (b) are correct (c) is not

Ans:- (3) All three are correct and (a) and (b) are necessary for (c)

(2) According to Saifubhai, what does Communism profess ?

(a) Give up the lust for profit.

(b) People should be paid generous wages.

(c) Means of production should be commonly owned.

(d) Everyone should be made to work according to one’s need.

(1) (4, (b), (c)

(2) (a), (c), (d)

(3) (a), (b), (d)

(4) (a), (c)

Ans:- (4) (a), (c)

(3) Which of the statements given below is/are correct ?

(a) Germany wanted “Capital and finished goods”.

(b) When Communism was born imperialism was fast asleep ?

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

(4) As per Saifubhai :

(a) Previously Indians were not aware how to die.

(b) In Communism the factories may shut down for want of money however in Imperialism

factories cannot get closed down on that count.

Which statement is incorrect ?

(1) Only (a)

(2) only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (3) Both (a) and (b)

(5) Saifubhai’s thinking :

(a) Only international inspiration is essential for the success of revolutionary movements.

(b) The rich can not be revolutionary fighters.

(1 (a) is right (b) is not

(2) (b) is right (a) is not

(3) Both (a) and (b) are right

(4) Neither (a) nor (b) is right

Ans:- (2) (b) is right (a) is not

Question number 6 to 10 :

In the simplest sense, evolution means the slow process of change from a simple to a more complex structure. Evolution assumes that all living things are inter-related. Humans are supposed to have developed from some simpler forms. Most of the scientists today accept the basic principle of evolution but they have varying views regarding how evolution has taken place or how would it go. The evolution of life began in the oceans. About four hundred million years ago the first land based creature emerged. Some of these gradually evolved into the reptiles who were later displaced by mammals. Mammals are warm-blooded creatures having greater capacity to learn from experiences than other animals and this capacity has reached to its highest development in the human species. Our closest relatives are Chimpanzee, Gorilla and Orang-utan. Similarities between man and other animal forms were identified by Linnaeus who grouped man, the great ape and monkey in a single order, primates. The three main theories of evolution are Lamarckism, Darvinism and Synthetic theory. Lamarck is chiefly remembered for his belief in the inheritability of acquired characters which is disputed. But he is credited in the history of evolutionary thought for recognizing and stating for the first time that evolution is a universal truth covering all forms of life and it is a gradual and an incessant process. The scientific propagation of the theory of evolution was mainly the work of Charles Darwin. He said, that human evolution occurs through the process of natural selection. The main points of this theory are struggle for existence, variation, survival of the fittest and natural selection. Darwins natural selection serves as the comer stone of the modern synthesis but the mutation theory, mendelian genetics and the statistics of population dvnamics are also very important components of its foundation. The basic postulate of the synthetic theory is that evolution proceeds principally as a result of the interaction between five indispensable processes mutation, change in the chromosome number and structure, genetic recombination, natural selection and reproductive isolation. This is also called Neo Darvinism.

(6) Most of the scientists have varying views regarding :

(1) Certainty of evolution

(2) Synthetic theory

(3) Direction of evolution

(4) Darvinism

Ans:- (3) Direction of evolution

(7) Lamark is credited for :

(1) Inheritability of acquired characters.

(2) History of evolutionary thought

(3) Evolution is a normal process

(4) All creatures are involved in evolution

Ans:-

(8) Wliich of the following statements is correct ?

(a) Warm blooded animals are the most experienced.

(b) Evolution takes it for granted that all living beings live together.

(1) Only (4

(2) Only (b)

(3) (a) and (b) both

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

(9) Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

(a) The Chimpanzee, Gorilla and Orangutan have no less capacity to learn from experiences than that in man.

(b) Lamarck, Darvin and Linnaeus proposed the theory of evolution.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (3) Both (a) and (b)

(10) Which of the following two statemnets is correct ?

(a) For maintaining biodiversity an intergrated approach is required.

(b) In conserving biological resources no economic angle is involved.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

 

Question number 11 to 15 :

The Earth’s genes, species and ecosystems are the products of over 300 million years of

evolution, and are the basis for the survival of our own species. Biological diversity is invaluable

because future practical values are unpredictable. Genetic diversity, which provides the variability

to enable species to adapt to changing conditions is important to all species. In addition genetic

variability in cultivated and domesticated species has become a significant socio-economic resource.

Without the genetic variability the new varieties cannot be developed moreover the global food

production would have been far less than it is at present and far less adaptable to the future

environmental changes.

Biological resources including genetic resources organisms or parts of organisms, populations

or any other biotic component of any ecosystem with actual or potential use to humanity are

renewable, and with proper management can certainly support human needs. These resources

and the diversity of the systems which support them, are therefore the essential foundation of

sustainable development.

The available evidence indicates that human activities are eroding biological resources and

greatly reducing the planet’s biodiversity. Estimating precise rate of loss, or adjudging the current

status of species is challenging. As there is no systematic monitoring system in place and much of

the baseline information is lacking the situation is serious especially in the species rich equatorial

region.

The loss of biodiversity is due to economic factors, especially the low values given to biodiversity

and to the ecological functions such as watershed protection, nutrient cling, pollution control, soil

formation, photosynthesis and evolution upon which human welfare depends. Therefore, virtually

all sectors of human society have interest in the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable

use of biological resources. However, no single sector can by-itself, ensure that biological resources

are managed to provide sustainable supplies of products, rather, co-operation is required between

the various sectors, ranging from research to tourism.

(11) Which of the following two statemnets is correct ?

(a) For maintaining biodiversity an intergrated approach is required.

(b) In conserving biological resources no economic angle is involved.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (1) Only (a)

(12) Which of the following two statements is correct ?

(a) There is abundance of life forms in the equatorial region.

(b) No monitoring whatsoever of biolo~cal resources is being done,

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (1) Only (a)

(13) Which of the following two statements is incorrect ?

(a) Our value system of the various entities is definitely incorrect.

(b) Sustainable development of biological resources ensures human welfare.

(1) Only (a) (2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

(14) Which of the following two statements is incorrect ?

(a) Man is nauhe’s enemy.

(b) Biological resources satisfy human needs.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (1) Only (a)

(15) Which of the following statements is correct ?

(a) Without evolution there would not have been so much food production

(b) Genetic variability rarely supports adaptations.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) (a) and (b) both

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (1) Only (a)

 

Question number 16 to 20 :

A three level Laser, the simplest kind, uses an assembly of atoms (molecules) that have a

metastable state, some energy above the ground state and still a higher excited state that decays to

the metastable state. More atoms are required in the metastable state than in the ground state. If

the same is arranged and light of particular frequency is made to shine on the assembly, there will

be more induced emission from atoms in the metastable state than induced absorption by atoms in

the ground state. The result will be amplification of orignal light. This concept constitutes the

principle of operation of laser. The term population inversion describes on assembly of atoms in

which the majority are in energy levels above the ground state; normally, the ground state is

occupied to the greatest extent. Optical pumping is one of the common techniques to produce a

population inversion. In a three level laser, more than half the atoms must be in the metaslable

state for induced emission to predominate. This is not the case for a four level laser. In the same

way the laser transition from metastable state ends at an unstable intermediate state rather than a

ground state. Because the intermediate state decays rapidly to the ground state, very few atoms

are in the intermediate state. Hence even a modest amount of pumping is enough to populate the

metastable state.

 

(16) 111 a three level laser, the metastable state is situated :

(1) below ground state

(2) above excited state

(3) in between rxclted and ground state

(4) exactly at grourld staite

Ans:- (3) in between rxclted and ground state

(17) Lesser ammnt of pumping is required in :

(1) four level laser

(2) three level laser

(3) two level laser

(4) both (1) and (2) require equal rumping

Ans:- (1) four level laser

(18) bring lasing act~cn of a four level laser transition from metastable state ends at :

(1) Higher excited state

(2) ground state

(3) Intermediate state between metastable and ground state

(4) None of the above

Ans:- (3) Intermediate state between metastable and ground state

(19) For induced emissioii in a three level laser :

(1) 50% of atoms should be in metastable state.

(2) < (less than) 50%, of atoms shoilld be in metastable state

(3) > (more thanj 50% of atoms should he in metastable state

(4) metastable state must be vacant

Ans:- (3) > (more thanj 50% of atoms should he in metastable state

(20) During population inversion in three stale laser :

(1) Metastable state is most populated.

(2) ground state is most populated

(3) Both metastable and ground state are equally populated

(4) None of the above

Ans:- (1) Metastable state is most populated.

Question number 21 to 23 :

There are several products of genetic engineering now available in the market viz. interferon,

human growth hormone and human insulin. In 1982, humar, insulin produccd by rocombinant

bacteria was released for sale in the market. All of these proteins were previously purified from

animal tissues. But human forms were available only in very minute quantities.

Before 1982, all insulins which were utilized for diabetics were purified on!v from bovine of

cattle and Porcine of pigs pancreas. These insulins were made available as by-products of meat

industry. The insulin supply was, thus a function of supply and demand in the meat market. The

commercial production of human insulin in recombinan E. Coli cells eliminated concerns regarding

possible shortage of insulin in the future. In addition, this human insulin, was of particular

importance io some diabetics who were allergic to bovine and/or porcine insulin.

Recombinant DNA techniques play an essential role in gene therapy which involves the

direct manipulation of genetic material.

 

(21) Suggest appropriate title to the paragraph :

(1) Genetic Engineering and Medicines

(2) Genetic Engineering

(3) Human insulin

(4) Insulin and Diabetics

Ans:- (1) Genetic Engineering and Medicines

(22) Consider the following two statements :

(a) Human insulin was not available until 1982.

(b) Insulin until then was the major product of meat industry.

Now state which of the two above statements is correct ?

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

(23) Which of the following two statements is correct ?

(a) Insulin obtained as a product of meat industry could not have been in short supply.

(b) Human insulin from recombinant E.Coli cells is important only because it is useful for some particular diabetics.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) (a) and (b) both

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

 

Question number 24 to 27 :

Chemistry is all around you. The air you breathe, the food you eat, the clothes you wear,

chemistry touches virtually every aspect of our lives. More than any other science, it has transformed

the world in which we live, bringing us abundant fooci, better health, stronger materials, softer

fabrics, brighter colors, cleaner homes, safer transport, greater energy efficiency etc. Our body is a

complex mixture of cliemical substances (65% mass is due to the chemical compound, water) and

we are kept alive by chemical reactions taking place in our cells. As a society, we use chemicals as

medicines when we are sick, whether we use ‘natural remedies or pharmaceutical products,

chemical reactions keep us warm, cook our food and power our transport. But chemistry also has

its darker side and that has ken in discovering and developing substances which are potentially

harn~ful. Bioterriorism and chemical war arp curses of the advances in science. Toxicology is a

science which studies all such materials which become a threat to the mankind. Now a days, it is

almost impossible for an ordinary person to obtain toxic chemicals, and it is almost impossible for

a poisoner to escape detection after the use. Poison is a weapon which is usable bothways and bj

those who wish to kill, 111ay do SO in SUC~ a way that the victim is unaware of it. Such deaths are

sometimes shown as natural deaths.

(24) Which of the following two statements is correct ?

(a) Chemistry is the superior most science.

(b) There can be no life without Chemistry.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (2) Only (b)

(25) Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

(a) The chemical reactions in a human body come to an end after death.

(b) Chemistry should look for a medicinelcure for Bioterrorism.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (3) Both (a) and (b)

(26) Which of the following statements is correct ?

(a) Man made medicines are more useful than the natural rnedicines/remedies.

(b) The harmful effects of chemistry are controlled by the helpful chemicals.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

(27) What is the central theme of toxicology ?

(1) Studv of pisonous materials

(2) study of adverse effect of chemicals

(3) Study of therapeutic effects of chemicals

(4) Study of both therapeutic and adverse effects of chemicals.

Ans:- (2) study of adverse effect of chemicals

 

Question number 28 to 32 :

In studying the Indian Constitution and the process of nation-builcling a fundamental principle

of diversity is noted time and again. As per this principle the different regions and linguistic

groups can protect and conserve their own culture. We had decided to live a united social life

without losing the distinctiveness of the numerous cultures that constituted India. Indian

nationalism has sought to balance the principles of unity and diversity. The nation does not mean

negation of a region. In this sense the Indian approach was different from that adopted in some

European countries where they saw cultural diversity as a threat to the nation.

India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. Democracy allows the

political expression of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti – national or anti –

democratic. Besides, democratic politics allows parties and groups to represent the people on the

basis of their regional identity, aspirations and specific regional problems. ‘Thus, in the course of

democratic politics, regional aspirations get strengthened. At the same time, democratic politics

also means that regional issues and problems will receive adequate attention and accommodation

in the policy making process.

Such an arrangement may sometimes lead to tensions and problems. 5ometirnrs, ill? concern

for national unity may oversha~low the regional needs and aspirations. At other trines a concern

for region alone may blind us to the larger needs of the nation. In the countries where national

integration is given top priority political conflicts over the issues of powers of the regions, their

rights and their existence often crop up.

After independence oilr nation had to cope with many difficult issues like partition,

displacement, integration of princely states, reorganisation of states and so on. Many observers,

both within the country and from outside, had predicted that India as one unified country cannot

last long. Soon after independence the issue of Jammu and Kashmir came up. It was not only a

conflict between India and Pakistan. The question of the politirill aspirations of the people of

Kashmir valley was associated with it. Similarly, in some parts of north east, there \\.as no consensus

about being a part of India. First Nagaland and then Mizoram witnessed strong movements

demanding separation from India. In the South, some groups from the Dravid movement briefly

toyed with the idea ot a separate country.

These events were followed by mass agitation in many parts for the formation of linguistic

states. Today’s Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujrat were among the regions

affected by these agitations. In some parts of Southern [ndia, particularly Tamil Nadu, there were

protests against making Hindi the official national lanbwage of the country. In the north there

were strong pro – Hindi agitations demanding that Hindi be made the official language immediately.

From the late 1950’s people speaking Punjabi language started agitating for a separate state for

themselves. The demand was finallv accepted and the Punjab and I-Iariyana states were created in

  1. Later, the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand a Uttarachal (now Uttarakhand) were created.

Thus the challenges of diversity were met with by redrawing boundaries of the states.

(28) Which of the following statements is correct ?

(a) All the observers thought that India will not be able remain as one unified country.

(b) In Jammu and Kashrnir the problem of regional aspirations of the people was bigger than that of India – Pakistan conflict.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (4) Neither (a) nor (b)

(29) Which of the following statements is correct ?

(a) In India the various states can protect and conserve their cultures.

(b) In India regional chauvinistic tendencies are opposed.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (3) Both (a) and (b)

(30) How India faced the challenges of diversity ?

(1) Creating awareness about Integration

(2) Accepting the democratic view

(3) Accepting the demands of the people

(4) None of the above

Ans:- (2) Accepting the democratic view

(31) Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

(a) In India national integrity is accorded priority but the regional diversities are not overlooked.

(b) In the other countries cultural diversities are considered a threat to the National Integrity.

(1) Only (a)

(2) Only (b)

(3) Both (a) and (b)

(4) Neither (a) nor (b)

Ans:- (3) Both (a) and (b)

(32) If man is able to make a proper choice between Ritualism and Rationalism –

(a) he will be able to make use of science in a more effective manner.

(b) he can attain his psychological and mental development.

(c) he will be able to understand the situation better.

(d) he can make his life trouble free.

(1) (a) and (c)

(2) (b) and (a)

(3) (c) and (d)

(4) All of the above

Ans:- (4) All of the above

 

Question number 33 to 37 :

The roots of superstition lie in ignorance. If we want to get rid of this menace it will be

of no use to blame, ridicule or brand superstitious ignorant. It will only demoralise them. We will

have to tell them skilfully in a restrained manner how the superstition takes roots, in which

conditions it grows. Through clever and tactful discussions we have to convince them that

superstitions if not restrained will bring only misery and disaster, and that therefore we should get

rid of it. The task needs consistent efforts and should be carried on with determination and

perseverance until such a person does not lose his faith in the superstitions and turns around.

Superstitions can be eradicated with the help of rational principles and practical thinking.

Legislation will obviously make the efforts stronger. An ordinance has been issued by the

Government. It is expected that it will be passed in the coming session.

We live in the age of science. We make use of the most advanced equipments and

discuss in the IT age. But in our personal lives we have not become rational yet. Even when

science is giving usinswcrs to questions regartling all lunds of happenings fro111 the most common

illness t2 untimcl\, rains, it is difficult to romprehmd, why people are still persisting with unscientific

answers to the Therefore thoughwe have [email protected] materialiy our m&tal development

has not kept pace with it.

It is a scientific truth that, the universe has evolved from five elements called as ‘Pancha

mahabhuta’ but some have managed to create myths about it giving it a ritualistic nature.

The resources developed by science and technology are being discreetly as well as blatantly

used for spreading superstitions and rituals. The computers are being used to tell the people what

will happen in the future. Had there not been advanced scientific resources like telegrams,

telephones, lax, e-mail how would the Ganesh idols all over the world have milk on the same day.

We should ask this pertinent question to ourselves. These persons who claim that they are so

powerful and blessed that they can have a direct dialogue with the God, why should they need

such trivial things like mobile and internet ?

(33) Eradication of superstition is a difficult task because :

(a) People are addicted to it and they are ignorant.

(b) People have faith in it and an attempt to divert them from it will demoralise them.

(c) ILS roots have gone deep in the life of common man.

(d) The line between superstition and faith is very thin.

(1) (b)

(2) (d)

(3) (c)

(4) (a)

Ans:- (3) (c)

(34) When can disasters occur due to superstitions ?

(a) When they affect the mental state of the igl~orant and illiterate.

(b) As the faith of the superstitious people grows day after day.

(c) Supersiitions drr followed despite the availability of developed resources.

(d) Dependency on superstitions though scientific reasoning says otherwise.

(1) (a)

(2) (b)

(3) (c)

(4) (d)

Ans:- (2) (b)

(35) We have not developed mentally. \Ye should :

(a) bury superstitions.

(b) Popularise science.

(c) Spread education.

(d) None of the above.

(1) (a)

(2) (c)

(3) (d)

(4) (b)

Ans:- (1) (a)

(36) Society at large still makes use of unscientific methods to solve problems because :

(a) Scientific knowledge acquired is not yet progressive.

(b) It does not have answers to it anywhere else and ritualism gives the answers

(c) Man’s mental state is not yet ready.

(d) Critical attitude of people has not yet developed.

(1) (c)

(2) (d)

(3) (a)

(4) (b)

Ans:- (2) (d)

 

Question number 37 to 41 :

What is life ? One of our greatest difficulties in answering a question like this arises from

language. We use words, and are inclined to think that a thing must correspond to every noun.

Now some nouns stand for things; for example, bricks, water and coal – gas are things. Others are

more doubtful. For example, a wave moves over the sea. We say that it is the same wave now as

five minutes ago, but the particles of water in it are quite different. A tune has even less claim to be

called a thing. It may be being played in several places at once, or nowhere. And some nouns like

greenness or cleverness stand for qualities which no one, except a few philosophers, suppose to

have any existence of their own.

Where does life belong in a classification of this kind ? When a man dies, we may say that he

has lost his life, or that life has gone out of him. Is that just a metaphor ? Is death the loss of

something, or merely a change of state, as when a snowman melts, or a pattern is disarranged ?

The first people of whose ideas on this subject we know anything thought that life was the same as

breath. But we know that breath consists of gas, which can be made into a solid or liquid, and also

that many living things do not breathe. Llfe is certainly not a kind of matter. When a man or an

animal dies he does not lose or gain in weight. Nor is there any measurable loss of energy. The

heat gradually leaves the body, but is doing so throughout life. A dead body cools because no

more heat is being generated inside it, not because anything measurable leaves it at the moment of

death.

Our ancestors thought that anything which moved itself was alive. And before the days of

machinery that was quite a good definition. Rut a machine such as a motor – car or a steamship

moves itself, and as soon as machines which moved themselves had been made, people asked, “Is

man a machine ?” the philosopher Descartesthought that both men and animals were machines,

but that the human machine was partly controlled by the soul acting on a certain part of the brain,

while animals had no souls. And some scientists think that life is just a very complicated mechanism.

 

(37) Choose the correct option.

According to Descartes,

(a) both men and animals are machines.

(b) only human beings have brains, while animals have no brains.

(c) only human beings have souls, while animals have no souls.

(d) life is just a complicated mechanism.

(1) Only (a) and (b)

(2) Only (a) and (c)

(3) Only (a) and (d)

(4) All four

Ans:- (2) Only (a) and (c)

(38) Choose the correct option :

A ‘wave’ is a doubtiul noun because …

(1) it moves over the sea.

(2) it is the same as five minutes ago.

(3) the particles of water have changed.

(4) All the above thee.

Ans:- (3) the particles of water have changed.

(39) Choose the correct option.

Life is NOT a kind of matter because death does NOT lead to :

(a) loss in weight

(b) gain in weight

(c) measurable loss of energy

(1) Only (a) and (b)

(2) Only (b) and (c)

(3) Only (a) and (c)

(4) (a), (b) and (c)

Ans:- (4) (a), (b) and (c)

(40) Choose the correct option.

The writer is sure that …

(a) death is a change of state.

(b) death is a disarrangement of pattern.

(c) life is not matter.

(d) breath consists of gas.

(1) Only (a) and (b)

(2) Only (c) and (d)

(3) Only (d)

(4) All four

Ans:- (2) Only (c) and (d)

(41) Choose the correct option.

The statement closest to the central theme of the passage is :

(a) Language creates problems about understanding life.

(b) Human beings are different from animals.

(c) People have different opinions about what life is.

(d) Human beings are machines.

(1) Only (4

(2) Only (b)

(3) Only (c)

(4) Only (d)

Ans:- (3) Only (c)

Question number 42 to 44 :

Modern psychology teaches everyone to chalk out clear-cut goals and achieving them

in the shortest duration. Psychologists, motivational experts and behavioural scientists are forever

busy researching on easy and quick paths to Self-realisation. Fast, clear and smooth is the new

mantra. But does it work in the longer run ? Not really. People go through this achievement exercise,

find it exciting for some time and then one fine day become disillusioned.

A client shared that as a child he was told that everything will be tine II he got good marks.

As he finished his post-graduation, he believed the socially accepted fantasy that everything will

be fine if he got a well-paid job. Then he had similar hopes – from salary hikes, success, marriage,

fatherhood, lavish partying, to practising relaxation techniques, buying a fancy car and owning a

luxury apartment. He reported that at each stage of achieving something he felt on top of the

world, but only for a short while.

Soon, he felt empty and then he chalked another goal thinking that maybe this time he will

stay happy for a longer duration. But nothing worked. Now for the last two years, he was struggling

with the question ‘who am i ?’ People thought that he was depressed and he should distract

himself from this futile philosophical question. Ironically, he was advised by many to chalk out yet

another goal to get over this psychological crisis or take pills to feel happy.

While ‘who am i ?’ appears to be a futile question, it is the door to the greatest good. All of us

are born with a true Self that has unique potential; we can realise it if we hear our inner voice.

However, we are taught right from day one what is socially valued and what is not. If we follow

what is socially accepted, we get love and recognition; other-wise, criticism and rejection await us.

As a result, we start doing what the world expects from us-money, fame, lavish lifestyle, designer

body, umpteen possessions, pleasure and clear-cut goals. Thus, the question ‘who am i ?’ is

deliberately suppressed.

This question, if pursued, may get you what you have been searching for all along. Therefore,

once you reach a point where you have surety that you can execute vour worldly duties, it is time

to turn inward. Stop asking people what you should be doing. Do not trust psychological tests that

claim to tell you what is good for you. There are no standard answers. Each person has to find his

own answer. The real psychology lies in discovering and realising who you are.

Who am I ? Think about this question; let it trouble you. Let it shake you up. Let it make you

uncertain about your identity. If others try to pull you back into mainstream dramas, refuse politely

and persist. Often, others distract you because they find this question scary and want to forget it.

In my experience as a psychologist, I often find that the unknown zone looks scary in the beginning

but if you stay on and explore, you will be in for a surprise.

 

Once you break away from social conditioning in your mind, you will get a taste of real

freedom. You will gradually become what you are and not what people want you to be. You will

experience happiness and contentment.

(42) Hardcore psychologist want you to :

(1) Chalk out clearcut goals.

(2) Achieve goals in shortest possible time

(3) Find easy and quick paths.

(4) Understand oneself.

Ans:- (4) Understand oneself.

(43) Initially you must :

(I) Decide upon the easy and quick paths.

(2) Start asking yourself “Who am I ?”

(3) Perform ordinary duties.

(4) Attain self realisation.

Ans:- (3) Perform ordinary duties.

(44) Give an appropriate title to this passage.

(1) Reasons for disillusionments.

(2) Attaining goals one after the other.

(3) Chalking out our goals.

(4) Psychological behaviour.

Ans:- (3) Chalking out our goals.